Graphics: How does China's democratic supervision system work?
China's democratic supervision system is varied and comprehensive – the government can hear the voices and wisdom of all sides and pool resources for socioeconomic construction and development, which not only minimizes internal friction but enables the long-term implementation of national policies conducive to the country's stability.
Aside from the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC), the country's top political advisory body, China has an expansive system of supervision and oversight.
Under the system, the National People's Congress (NPC), the country's top legislature, supervises the implementation of the Constitution, laws and other major policies. The people's congresses at different levels supervise the work of governments, supervisory commissions, courts and procuratorates, ensuring the proper exercise of their powers.
Administrative organs, based on law, supervise each other, and the higher ones supervise those at lower levels. Supervisory commissions monitor and inspect political conduct, the exercise of public power, and the moral integrity of officials. Meanwhile, the judicial and procuratorial organs supervise state power and initiate prosecutions against officials involved in wrongdoing.
Moreover, the auditing department audits budgets, final accounts and other government revenues and expenditures. The financial department drafts laws and regulations on finance and accounting and supervise their implementation. Meanwhile, the statistical department supervises all organizations and persons bearing statistical obligations, thereby preventing and punishing statistical falsification.
Citizens, legal persons and other organizations can also apply for administrative reviews or file administrative lawsuits against government actions, report to supervisory commissions and accuse public officials of failing to perform their duties or violating laws and ethical codes. The media can also fully exercise its function, highlighting abuses of public power and dereliction of duty.
For instance, a total of 29,323 proposals were submitted to the 13th CPPCC National Committee over the past five years. Of the 23,818 proposals filed, 99.8 percent had been handled by the end of February 2023, according to an official report.
In 2022, the country's discipline inspection and supervision organs received 3.44 million letters of complaint and proposals, filed 596,000 cases, and punished 592,000 people, according to the official review statement.
(Data edited by Sun Yiwen; Graphics designed by Mukesh Mohanan)