Socialist Prime Minister Pedro Sanchez called early elections after his government failed to get its budget passed in February, and polls suggest his party could again be the biggest – but it would likely need to agree on a deal with other parties to form a government.
The role of right-wing parties will likely be on the agenda when Italian Deputy Prime Minister Matteo Salvini and Hungarian Prime Minister Viktor Orban hold talks on Thursday as campaigning for the European Parliament polls is stepped up.
And elsewhere in Europe, Britain will vote in local elections expected to be damaging for Prime Minister Theresa May, who is considering putting her Brexit deal to MPs for a fourth time this week.
Monday: Voting begins in phase four of India's lower house election, Japanese PM Shinzo Abe visits Canada, German Chancellor Angela Merkel and French President Emmanuel Macron host the leaders of Balkan countries in Berlin, and Liberal PM Scott Morrison and Labor leader Bill Shorten debate ahead of Australia's general election.
Tuesday: Japanese Emperor Akihito abdicates, Myanmar's State Counselor Aung San Suu Kyi visits Cambodia, German Chancellor Angela Merkel hosts Iraqi PM Adel Abdul-Mahdi, and U.S. President Donald Trump holds infrastructure talks with top Democrats.
Wednesday:Crown Prince Naruhito is enthroned as Japan's new emperor, U.S. Attorney General Bill Barr is grilled by the Senate Judiciary Committee on the Mueller report, and German Chancellor Angela Merkel begins a trip to Burkina Faso, Mali and Niger.
Thursday: U.S. waivers on Iran sanctions are due to end, Italian DPM Matteo Salvini meets Hungarian PM Viktor Orban in Budapest, the G5 Sahel alliance holds a summit in Burkina Faso, discussions to implement a peace accord in South Sudan take place in Ethiopia, and Britain votes in local elections.
Friday: European Council President Donald Tusk marks Poland's Constitution Day with a lecture at Warsaw University, and Slovak PM Peter Pellegrini meets U.S. President Donald Trump in Washington.
Saturday: China marks the centenary of the May Fourth movement, and a coronation ceremony is held for Thai King Maha Vajiralongkorn.
Sunday: Round two of North Macedonia's presidential election takes place, and Panama votes in presidential and National Assembly polls.